Anopheles Mosquito| plasmodium malariae, Malaria Treatment, and p. falciparum

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The female anopheles mosquito that causes malaria
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium falciparum

 

Anopheles Mosquito is a female mosquito that that causes malaria in human.There are several symptoms pertaining to malaria plasmodium

Malaria transmission

How is malaria transmitted? Usually, people get malaria (caused by Anopheles Mosquito) by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito.Therefore, Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken from an infected person.

 

NB: Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoan that causes malaria in humans.

                                     SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA
Malaria poses several symptoms within the body some of which are

1. Headache: is defined as pain arising from the head or upper neck of the body. 

2. Chills and Fever: They are most often associated with a fever. Chills are rapid muscle contraction and relaxation of muscles.

3. High temperature: A high temperature is usually considered to be 38C or above. 

4.bitterness in the mouth: A bitter or bad taste in the mouth can be a normal reaction to eating pungent or sour foods. 

5. Vomiting: Vomiting — forcefully expelling what’s in your stomach through your mouth — is your body’s way of getting rid of something harmful in the stomach.

6. Nausea: Nausea is a diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, often perceived as an urge to vomit. 

7. pale : Pale or paleness, also known as pale complexion, is an unusual lightness of skin color when compared with your normal complexion.

8. Fatigue: Fatigue is a term used to describe an overall feeling of tiredness or lack of energy. 

9. loss of appetite: Loss of appetite means you don’t have the same desire to eat as you used to. 

10. dehydration: Dehydration occurs when more water and fluids leave the body than enter it. Even low levels of dehydration can cause headaches, lethargy, and constipation. 

 

What is Malarial Test?

Malarial Test helps to detect plasmodium Protozoa in a person’s blood under a microscope.Also, Malaria parasites are identified by examining a patience blood under a microscope.

Which Areas does Malaria Affect in the body?

The part of the body that may:
1. The abdomen muscle
2.The whole body
3. Gastrointestinal where you can see patience experiencing diarrhea, nausea, and Vomiting

Kindly consult your doctor should you begin seeing any of these signs

PREVENTION OF MALARIA(prophylactics)
Prevention of malaria is very important, You may find below helpful in preventing malaria at home and in your community
1. Use a treated mosquito net to avoid mosquito bites
2y. Use mosquito repellent.
3. Use mosquito coils
4. Cleaning of gutters around
5. Making sure that there are no stagnant waters around to breathe mosquitos.

How is malaria treatment done?

Treatment for malaria

The types of drugs and the length of treatment will vary, depending on:

  • Which type of malaria parasite you have
  • The severity of your symptoms
  • Your age
  • Pregnancy status if you are a female
  • Your health history

Medication

The most common antimalarial drugs include:

  • Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). ACTs are, in many cases, the first-line treatment for malaria. There are several different types of ACTs. Examples include thermometer-lumefantrine (Coartem) and artesunate-amodiaquine. Each ACT is a combination of two or more drugs that work against the malaria parasite in different ways.  (Malaria Treatment using Chloroquine phosphate)

NB: Malarone is a fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride which acts as a blood schizonticide and also has activity against hepatic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum. . Treatment of acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Also, In 2019, 6 countries accounted for approximately half of all malaria deaths worldwide: Nigeria (23%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), United Republic of Tanzania (5%), Burkina Faso (4%), Mozambique (4%) and Niger (4% each).

Key facts to know

  • Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. It is preventable and curable.
  • In 2019, there were an estimated 229 million cases of malaria worldwide.
  • Furthermore, the estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 409 000 in 2019.
  • Also,The WHO African Region carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2019, the region was home to 94% of malaria cases and deaths.
  • Total funding for malaria control and elimination reached an estimated US$ 3 billion in 2019. Contributions from governments of endemic countries amounted to US$ 900 million, representing 31% of total funding.

Surveillance

Surveillance entails tracking the disease and programmatic responses and taking action based on the data received. Currently, many countries with a high burden of malaria have weak surveillance systems and are not in a position to assess disease distribution and trends, making it difficult to optimize responses and respond to outbreaks.

Furthermore, In March 2018, WHO released a reference manual on malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. The manual provides information on global surveillance standards and guides countries in their efforts to strengthen surveillance systems

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